Anglizismen in Blogs deutschsprachiger Länder (German Edition)
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Comprehension - intended by advertisers or not?! Predictors of comprehension! Functions of English in advertising! Range of functions! From connotations of English elements to language effects! Ethno-cultural stereotypes vs effects of international English! Socio-indexical functions! Socio-psychological functions! Internationalism, cosmopolitanism! English as 'cool', 'trendy' and 'hip'! General attractiveness! Interdependencies of functions and advertisement content!
Research questions! Research questions on perception of English items! Research questions on effects of English elements in ads! Empirical part! Study on language decision in visual word recognition! Research design! Analysis, results and interpretation! Influence of personal factors on language decisions!
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Best predictors of language decisions! Summary of results! Study on effects of English in German ads! Perception-based approach: implications for study design! Stimuli: mock advertisements! Analysis and results! Evaluation of advertisements' emotional appeal! Language effects on appeal: analysis of aggregated variables!
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Evaluation of product attributes! Evaluation of brand personality!
General language effects on brand personality! Evaluation of target groups! General language effects on perception of target groups! Attitudes towards the use of English in Germany! Contact with the English Language! Factors influencing evaluation of advertisements as trustworthy! Factors influencing evaluation of brands!
Factors influencing evaluation of target groups! Results and discussion! General discussion and conclusion! Stimuli for language decision study! Stimuli for advertising effectiveness study! CD with additional digital information! In einer quantitativen Onlinestudie wurden vier speziell entwickelte Werbeanzeigen, die sich nur hinsichtlich der Verwendung englischer Elemente unterschieden, von Teilnehmern bewertet. Da den Probanden jeweils nur eine Version der Anzeige gezeigt wurde und ihnen der linguistische Hintergrund der Untersuchung unbekannt war, spiegeln die Ergebnisse die Wirkung englischer Elemente in realen Kontaktsituationen wider.
Des Weiteren zeigte sich ein signifikanter Einfluss graphemischer Fremdheitsmarker auf die Sprachzuordnung der Lexeme. Die Verwendung englischer Elementen in deutschen Werbeanzeigen ist ein Resultat von langfristigem und intensivem Sprachkontakt. Zudem wurde ein statistisch signifikanter Einfluss der Wortform anhand graphemischer Marker nachgewiesen. Aus diesem Grund werden sie gerne prominent platziert, zum Beispiel in Headlines Graedler , Die Verwendung englischer Elemente neben deutschen Inhalten bezeichnet Androutsopoulos als English 'on top' 1.
Deutsch und der Zweitsprache L2, hier dem Englischen dargestellt. Altleitner , Das Englische unterscheidet sich von anderen Sprachen in der Werbung dadurch, dass es nur selten dazu benutzt wird, um auf ethno-kulturelle Stereotypen anzuspielen, sondern meist als internationale Sprache auftritt. Dadurch, dass englische Elemente nicht nur die Sprache der Werbung kennzeichnen, sondern auch im Sprachgebrauch bestimmter sozialer Gruppen vermehrt auftreten, wie zum Beispiel in der Sprache von Jugendlichen oder einer multilingualen, interxix.
Kellerhals , 85; Piller , Eine Ausnahme stellt die Untersuchung von Hornikx et al. Die Tatsache, dass Gerritsen et al. Jede Anzeigenversion wurde von ca. In den Ergebnissen zeigten sich nur vereinzelt statistisch signifikante Effekte des Englischen. Auch bei der Produktbewertung gab es nur wenige Unterschiede zwischen den Sprachversionen. Zudem wurde die Zielgruppe der gemischten Anzeigen xxi.
Hinsichtlich Alter, Bildungsniveau, Einkommen, Erfolg, Sportlichkeit und Interessenvielfalt gab es jedoch keine Unterschiede in den verschiedenen Anzeigen. For a short moment one wonders whether this peculiar wording could actually have a deeper meaning to it and was intended to attract attention, but remembering that this is not the urban centre of Berlin where a hip multilingual crowd gathers in places called Godshot or Mr.
Hai Life, this illusion quickly fades.
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In realising that this sign is indeed a bumbling attempt to invite the passersby to an imaginative foreign world full of sunshine, you are ironically reminded of where you actually are, a small rural town south east of Munich. It seems to be part of common knowledge today that advertising with English makes all sorts of offers appear more modern and international, at least professional advertisers as well as small business owners regularly rely on it. Apparently, the English language is generally believed to have a positive effect, as it has become a natural choice in the context of advertising, regardless of the target group's and in this case also the tanning shop owner's English skills.
This belief is also shared by researchers in the field who, after having analysed variably sized corpora of advertisements to determine the symbolic functions of English elements, have, for example, ascribed them the values of cosmopolitanism, sophistication and fun-orientation e.
Bhatia ; Haarmann ; Kelly-Holmes As such a methodological approach does not allow for drawing conclusions on either the intentions of the advertiser, or on the actual reactions of consumers cf. Janich , 50 , it is unclear whether English elements actually have positive effects. When considering that the Endmark-Claim studies , , and regularly demonstrate consumers' difficulties in understanding English slogans, and that they occasionally lead to comic misconceptions of the advertising message, it seems unlikely that the use of English in advertising should always lead to more positive evaluations.
However, English slogans are not designed to be translated, but are rather supposed to convey a brand's essential motto or a feeling that is to be associated with the brand. In order to learn about the symbolic effects that foreign languages have on consumers, 1. Hornikx et al. However, since people are not consciously aware of all the effects that English elements actually have on them, directly asking consumers about their reactions to English-mixed advertisements will not inform us adequately about the actual effects.
While such studies can shed light on specific associations individuals may have, they are prone to simply confirming commonly held stereotypes about languages. The problem is that as soon as the focus is on the use of foreign elements, they are perceived as meaningful and hence interpreted according to common knowledge about their functions, i. It thus follows that even if English elements are reported to have no obvious effect at all that does not mean that they could not influence consumers' evaluations of the advertisement, product, brand or target group in a non-comparative setting.
To overcome this problem, Marinel Gerritsen and colleagues asked each participant in the study to evaluate only one of the two language versions of their advertisements. This between subject design ensured that the importance of language use was not overemphasised, as it would have been in a direct comparison. Contradicting all expectations, they found that the use of English compared to the use of German in a product ad does not have any impact on either the image or the assumed price of the product. However, one limitation of this pioneer research on the actual effects of English is that the stimuli material consisted of manipulated advertisements for real products, i.
Absolut Vodka, a Bulgari perfume and the car Smart forfour. In this light, the finding that language use does not matter much for the evaluations of these well-known brands is less surprising, because participants would be expected to have previously formed opinions and attitudes towards these products. Such product related knowledge is unlikely to be changed by the ad in the experiment, even if it communicates incongruent information, and it therefore remains unclear to what extent the participants' answers were actually influenced by the stimuli. These considerations leave us with the question of whether, after all, English elements in print ads really have an effect.
It examines whether English elements in German print advertisements really influence the emotional appeal of the advertisement, and how brand personality, product quality, and implied target group are evaluated by German consumers. While the functions of foreign elements in advertising have already been studied extensively e. Bhatia ; Haarmann ; Kellerhals ; Martin , ; Piller , ; Schiemichen , little research has been concerned with the effects English elements actually have on consumers see Gerritsen et al. Such a distinction between the functions that English elements fulfil in an advertising text on the one hand and the effects they actually have on the receivers of the ad on the other is of central importance to this study.
In order to resolve the previously described methodological problems, four especially designed mock advertisements with two language versions each that are identical, except for the use of some English elements in one of them and German equivalents in the other, are evaluated by participants in a between subject design. Moreover, the linguistic background of this quantitative online-study is disguised by simply asking participants to evaluate a set of advertisements.
In being blind to the actual aim of the experiment, participants draw on whatever information they perceive to be relevant to their judgements, be it the pictures, colours, layout, language choice, typeface, or anything else, because their attention is not directed to language use. Additionally, by analysing the effects of English in the multimodal setting of an advertisement, a more realistic processing situation of print advertisements can be achieved then in isolating single structural components, such as slogans e.
Puntoni et al. The central prerequisites for English elements to have an effect on consumers are that they are, for one, noticed and, secondly, perceived as being English.
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In natural settings, people come into contact with advertisements accidentally and usually have no interest in processing them. Print advertisements in magazines are only viewed very briefly the average time being two to three seconds 2 , with most of this time devoted to pictures and visual aspects. Another study by Keitz, Gunawardena et al. Kroeber-Riel, et al.