Die Zeit der Verachtung: Roman (German Edition)
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From this edition, however, Droysen suppressed the Vorrede written to the first edition, published 42 years before In this Vorrede one can see a page wherein Droysen lengthily discussed the contents of his concept of Hellenism. Reading the allusion out of its original context was enough to induce Laqueur's first misconception.
Is it valid to employ it today if not as an aim, at least as a stimulus? In this text I discuss both questions specially because I disagree with another premise of P. So die allgemeinem Umrisse eines geschichtlichen Verlaufs, der mit dem allgemeinem Namen des Hellenismus bezeichnet werden kann. So darf man des Hellenismus mit Recht die erste Welteinheit nennen The passage which Bernhardy devoted more attention to along successive editions of his Compendium of Greek literature , , was probably the same Droysen had in mind when he wrote the Vorrede : the chapter of Sextus Empiricus Aduersus mathematicos.
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But Niebuhr's largest and most systematic contribution for the history of Hellenism, a contribution which Droysen called attention to in the Vorrede , was the series of lectures given by Niebuhr between at the University of Bonn on Greek history, from Alexander's death to the establishment of the Roman Empire and the end of Ptolemaic Egypt.
The topics proposed by Niebuhr coincided with the structure adopted by Droysen, and form an account of the vicissitudes of Hellenistic kingdoms as increasingly linked to the history of the Roman expansion: the Macedonian kingdoms, the hellenization of the East, the decline of Greece, the Roman world dominance. Differently from Niebuhr, however, Droysen did not put Roman policy at the focus of his exposition.
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To no other scholar Droysen has given so much space in the preface as to Niebuhr; in both editions of the GH, he transcribed snippets of Niebuhr paraphrasing him as he would have done with an ancient source Hegel, also a former professor of Droysen, discussed the same subject but without so much enthusiasm; neither Herder nor Hegel, however, drew parallels between this mixture and the hellenistic one, a task up to Droysen The mixture of languages, civilizations and cultures occupied the central position and had for him a particular religious importance.
Droysen was a faithful Lutheran to whom Hellenism represented the culmination of the ancient world, with the appearance of God made man foreshadowed since the deification of Alexander. Contradicting Bernhardy in his assessments of Alexandrian literature, Droysen also noted that at no other time so many people had improved on science as at that time, highlighting the works of Zenodotus, Euclid, Hypparchus and above all Eratosthenes The new element, which would overlap marginal issues such as those relating to Macedonia, was the mixture of two specific components, Greek and Oriental In the original design, as foreseen in the 's Vorrede , the Battle of Sellasia BCE concluded only the first part of the work.
The narrative of the volume 2 published in ends with this year. The forty-year interval between both editions, marked by Droysen's extensive production about the history of Prussia, did not diminish his interest in Hellenism, but forced him to reflect on two problems which he would never reconcile adequately: the theoretical and practical difficulties inherent in conducting so vast a program chronologically and thematically; and the need for further investigations into the Jewish foundations of Christianity, an issue that interested him far less than its Hellenic aspects View or edit your browsing history.
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With confidence then in God, who sits as Ruler and knows how to guide all things well, this work is left to make its way once more into the much agitated theological world. May He ward off harm, so far as it contains what is erroneous, and grant His blessing, so far as it may minister to the correct, unstinted, and undisguised understanding of His revealed Word.
The year of his birth is quite uncertain A. He therefore possessed by birth this right of citizenship, which subsequently had so important a bearing on his labours and his fate Acts f. Of his first youthful training in his native city, where arts and sciences flourished Strabo, xiv. He entered a training-school of Pharisaic theology, and became a rabbinic pupil of the universally honoured Acts Gamaliel Acts , who, notwithstanding his strict orthodoxy Lightfoot, ad Matth.
At the feet of Gamaliel he of course received an instruction which, as to form and matter, was purely rabbinic; and hence his epistles exhibit, in the mode in which they unfold their teaching, a more or less distinct rabbinico-didactic impress. But it was natural also that his susceptible and active mind should not remain unaffected by Hellenic culture, when he came into contact with it; and how could he escape such contact in Jerusalem, whither Hellenists flocked from all quarters under heaven? This serves to explain a dilettante acquaintance on his part with Greek literary works, which may certainly be recognized in Acts , if not also in 1 Corinthians Titus ; and which, perhaps already begun in Tarsus, may have been furthered without its being sought by his subsequent relations of intercourse with Greeks of all countries and of all ranks.
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It is impossible to determine how much or how little of the virtues of his character, and of the acuteness, subtlety, and depth of lofty intellect which he displayed as apostle, he owed to the influence of Gamaliel; for his conversion had as its result so entire a change in his nature, that we cannot distinguish—and we should not attempt to distinguish—what elements of it may have grown out of the training of his youth, or to what extent they have done so.
We can only recognize this much in general, that Saul, with excellent natural gifts, with the power of an acute intellect, lively feelings, and strong will, was, under the guidance of his teacher, not merely equipped with Jewish theological knowledge and dialectic art, but had his mind also directed with lofty national enthusiasm towards divine things; and that, however deeply he felt sin to be the sting of death Romans ff. Jesu , I. Nevertheless it is also certain that the moderation and mildness of the teacher did not communicate themselves to the character of the disciple, who, on the contrary, imbibed in a high degree that prevailing rigour of Pharisaism, the spirit of which no Gamaliel could by his individual practical wisdom exorcise.
He became a distinguished zealot for the honour of Jehovah and the law Acts , as well as for Pharisaic principles Galatians , and displayed all the recklessness and violence which are wont to appear, when fiery youthful spirits concentrate all their energies on the pursuit of an idea embraced with thorough enthusiasm.
His zeal was fed with abundant fuel and more and more violently inflamed, when the young Christian party growing up in Jerusalem became an object of hostility as dangerously antagonistic to the theocracy and legal orthodoxy comp Acts , and at length formal persecution broke out with the stoning of Stephen. Even on that occasion Saul, although still in a very subordinate capacity, as merely a youth in attendance, took a willing and active part Acts ; Acts ; but soon afterwards he came forward on his own account as a persecutor of the Christians, and, becoming far and wide a terror to the churches of Judaea Galatians f.
Yet precisely such a character as Saul—who, full of a keen but for the time misdirected love of truth and piety, devoted without selfish calculation his whole energies to the idea which he had once embraced as his highest and holiest concernment—was, in the purpose of God, to become the chief instrument for the proclamation and extension of the divine work, of which he was still for the moment the destructive adversary.
A transformation so extraordinary required extraordinary means. Accordingly when Saul, invested with full powers by the Sanhedrin Acts ; Acts , was carrying his zealous labours beyond the bounds of Palestine, there took place near Damascus 35 A. His conversion was completed through Ananias, who was directed to him by means of an appearance of Christ Acts ff ; and, having been baptized, he at once after a few days, in the resolute consciousness of his spiritual life transformed with a view to his apostolic vocation Galatians , preached in the synagogues of Damascus Jesus as being the Son of God Acts f.
For all half-heartedness was foreign to him; now too he was, whatever he was, thoroughly , and this energetic unity of his profound nature was now sanctified throughout by the living spirit of Christ. His apostolic labours at Damascus, the birthplace of his regenerate life, lasted three years, interrupted however by a journey to Arabia Galatians , the object of which most probably was to make merely a preliminary and brief trial of his ministry in a foreign field.
Heiden , , p. The fact that nevertheless the youthful Saul developed into a zealot cannot warrant any doubt, in opposition to Acts ff. The comparisons instituted with a view to establish this point are too weak and general. How many similar parallels might be collected, e.
Compare generally Dorner, Gesch. Thus, following the living historical tradition within the circle of Christianity under the influence of the Christ revealed in him, he became the most important witness for the history of Jesus apart from the Gospels. Keim, Geschichte Jesu , I. But that he had seen Christ Himself, cannot be inferred from 2 Corinthians ; see on that passage.
Compare also Hausrath, neut. This view is decidedly at variance with Acts , where the immediate public teaching at Damascus, a few days after the conversion, receives very studious prominence. Luke, it is true, makes no mention at all of the Arabian journey; but for that very reason it is highly improbable that it had as its object a silent preparation for his official work. For in that case the analogous instances of other famous teachers who had prepared themselves in the desert for their future calling Exodus ; Exodus ; Deuteronomy ; 1 Kings , and the example of John the Baptist, and even of Christ Himself, would have made the fact seem too important either to have remained wholly unknown to Luke, or to have been passed over without notice in his history; although Hilgenfeld and Zeller suppose him to have omitted it intentionally.
On the other hand, we cannot suppose that the sojourn in Arabia extended over the whole, or nearly the whole, of the three years Eichhorn, Hemsen, Anger, Ewald, Laurent, and older expositors.jamesbuehring.com/1266.php
Die Zeit der Verachtung: Roman (German Edition)
See generally on Galatians At first regarded by the believers there with distrust, he was, through the loving intervention of Barnabas Acts f. His first apostolic working at Jerusalem was not to last more than fifteen days Galatians ; already had the Lord by an appearance in the temple Acts ff. Here he seems to have lived and worked wholly in quiet retirement, till at length Barnabas, who had appreciated the greatness and importance of the extraordinary man, went from Antioch, where just at that time Gentile Christianity had established its first church, to seek him out at Tarsus, and brought him thence to the capital of Syria; where both devoted themselves for a whole year A.
We know not whether it was during this period see Anger, temp. But the great famine was now approaching, which, foretold at Antioch by the prophet Agabus from Jerusalem, threatened destruction to the churches of Judaea. On this account the brethren at Antioch, quite in the spirit of their new brotherly love, resolved to forward pecuniary aid to Judaea; and entrusted its transmission to Barnabas and Saul Acts After the execution of this commission A. In the course of these journeys he was wont, where there were Jews, to attempt the fulfilment of his office in the first instance among them, in accordance with what he knew to be the divine order Romans ; Romans ff.
And in all variety of circumstances he exhibited a vigour and versatility of intellect, an acuteness and depth, clearness and consistency, of thought, a purity and steadfastness of purpose, an ardour of disposition, an enthusiasm of effort, a wisdom of conduct, a firmness and delicacy of practical tact, a strength and freedom of faith, a fervour and skill of eloquence, a heroic courage amidst dangers, a love, self-denial, patience, and humility, and along with all this a lofty power of gifted genius, which secure for the Saul whom Christ made His chosen instrument the reverence and admiration of all time.
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Holsten, l. Lebensbild , ; Krenkel, Paul. Heiden , ; Hausrath, neut. Still the history of the spiritual development of the Apostle cannot be so definitely and sharply divided into periods as Sabatier has tried to do.
See, against this, the appropriate remarks of Gess, Jahrb. The motive power and unity of all his working lay in his inward fellowship with Christ, with His death and resurrection—in the subjective living and moving in Christ, and of Christ in him. In accordance with the narrative of Acts, three missionary journeys of the Apostle may be distinguished; and in the description of these we may insert the remaining known facts of his history.
He must, however, have made many subordinate journeys, for the Book of Acts is far from giving a complete account of his labours, as is clearly shown by various intimations in the Epistles.
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For example, how many journeys and events not noticed in the Acts must be assumed in connection with 2 Corinthians ff.? On his consecration as Apostle to the Gentiles, Paul went along with Barnabas the Cyprian, and with Mark accompanying them as apostolic servant, first of all to the neighbouring Cyprus; where, after his advance from Salamis to Paphos, his work was crowned by a double success—the humiliation of the goetes Elymas, and the conversion of the proconsul Sergius Paulus Acts Then Pamphylia, where Mark parted from the apostles Acts , Pisidia and Lycaonia became in turn fields of his activity, in which, together with Barnabas, he founded churches and organized them by the appointment of presbyters Acts At one time receiving divine honours on account of a miracle Acts ff.
While Paul and Barnabas were here enjoying a quiet sojourn of some duration among the brethren Acts , there came down from Judaea Pharisaic Christians jealous for the law, who required the Gentile converts to submit to circumcision as a condition of Messianic salvation Acts ; Galatians It was natural that this demand should encounter a decided opponent in the highly enlightened and liberal-minded Paul, whose lively assurance of the truth, resting on revelation and upheld by his own experience, could tolerate no other condition of salvation than faith in Christ; and in consequence both he and the likeminded Barnabas became entangled in no small controversy Acts And how happy was the result of this so-called Apostolic Council!
Paul laid the Gospel which he preached to the Gentiles before the church, and the apostles in particular, with the best effect Galatians ; Galatians ; and, as to the point of circumcision, not even his apostolic associate Titus, a Gentile, was subjected to the circumcision demanded by members of the church who were zealous for the law. With unyielding firmness Paul contended for the truth of the Gospel. The apostles who were present James, the brother of the Lord, Peter and John—approved of his preaching among, and formally recognized him as Apostle to, the Gentiles Galatians ; and he and Barnabas, accompanied by the delegates of the church at Jerusalem, Judas Barsabas and Silas, returned to Antioch bearers of a decree Acts favourable to Christian freedom from the law, and important as a provisional measure for the further growth of the church Acts f.
Here they prosecuted afresh their preaching of Christ, though not always without disturbance on the part of Jewish Christians, so that Paul was compelled in the interest of Christian freedom openly to oppose and to admonish even Peter, who had been carried away into dissimulation, especially seeing that the other Jewish Christians, and even Barnabas, had allowed themselves to be tainted by that dissimulation Galatians ff.
Paul had nevertheless the welfare of his foreign converts too much at heart to permit his wishing to prolong his stay in Antioch Acts He proposed to Barnabas a journey in which they should visit those converts, but fell into a dispute with him in consequence of the latter desiring to take Mark Acts —a dispute which had the beneficial consequence for the church, that the two men, each of whom was qualified to fill a distinct field of labour, parted from one another and never again worked in conjunction.
Paul, accompanied by Silas, entered on a second missionary journey A. He went through Syria and Cilicia , strengthening the Christian life of the churches Acts ; and then through Lycaonia , where at Lystra see on Acts he associated with himself Timothy, whom he circumcised—apart however from any connection with the controversy as to the necessity of circumcision see on Acts —with a view to prevent his ministry from causing offence among the Jews.