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Pages Islamic Education: Philosophy. Waqf and Financing Islamic Education.

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Colonialism, Postcolonialism, Islam, and Education. Muslim Orientations and Views on Education. Islam and the West: Clashes and Cooperations. Islam, State, Civil Society, and Education. Women and Education in Muslim Context. Islam, Sexualities, and Education. Islam and Democracy in Muslim Educational Settings.

Islam, Globalizations, and Education. Education of Religious Minorities in Muslim Countries.

Imaginary Muslims: How the Polish right frames Islam

Islamic Fundamentalism, Terrorism, and Education. Migration, Diaspora, Muslim Transnational communities, and Education. Islamic Education in Iran. Islamic Education in Egypt.

“The Bulwark of Christianity”

Islamic Education in Turkey. Islamic Education in Saudi Arabia.

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Islamic Education in Morocco. Islamic Education in West and Central Africa. Islamic Education in East Africa. Islamic Education in South Africa. Islamic Education in Afghanistan. He again said: What is this [sic: read their] colour? He said: They are red. He said: Is there a dusky one among them?

He said: Yes, there are dusky ones among them[. Islam advocated justice and human rights.

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It is genetically possible for two parents with lighter complexions to bear a dark-complexioned child. Understanding genetic possibilities could prevent false accusations of paternity and consequent abuse of innocent people, especially women. Genetic counseling advises patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder or a trait of the consequences and nature of the disorder or character, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options available in order to prevent, avoid, or ameliorate it.

This complex process can have diagnostic the estimation of risk and supportive aspects.

Handbook of Islamic Education

This concept underlies our current understanding of dominant and recessive inheritance. Choose well your mate for your semen as the hidden traits can reappear. Then He made his progeny of an extract of water liquid held in light estimation. Not from all the liquid comes the child. And if Allah wants to create something, nothing prevents Him.

Most commentators understood this passage to mean that not every instance of sexual intercourse results in pregnancy. These statements from more than 1, years ago were confirmed in the modern era. Only one sperm out of hundreds of millions released during copulation fertilizes the ovum. In fact, the great majority of sperm die during their travel toward the ovum. At the end of this voyage, around sperms reach the ovum. This minority must be the most motile to compete for the penetration of the ovum. This form of natural selection before fertilization takes place not only with sperms but also with ova.

A female has at the beginning of her fetal life about six million primary oocytes, diploid cells containing two sets of chromosomes, many of which degenerate before birth. Approximately, 30, primary oocytes remain at birth and then begin to mature after menarche at a frequency of just one or very few per every menstrual cycle.

The mature secondary oocytes or ova are haploid cells, containing half the chromosomal number as a result of meiotic division. As part of the natural selection process, genetic variation is ensured partly due to the wide range of probable chromosomal crossovers and recombinations.

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Accordingly, after fertilization of a human ovum by a sperm, the resulting diploid zygote may be produced theoretically with any of 64 trillion 2 23 x 2 23 possibilities of chromosomal pairings. The possibilities are multiplied due to the randomness of the fertilization process in addition to the process of crossing over. Natural selection also continues after conception.

Half of these occur without the knowledge of the mothers, who think the bleeding resulting from the spontaneous abortion is menstrual blood. As time progresses and the age of the mother increases, meiotic division seemingly becomes disturbed and may produce abnormalities dysjunction that result in an abnormal number of chromosomes.

If this affects autosomal chromosomes, it results in syndromes such as Downs syndrome trisomy 21 , trisomy 13 or trisomy If it affects sex chromosomes, it results in syndromes such as Turner or Klinefelter. And We have enjoined man in respect of his parents — his mother bears him with faintings upon faintings and his weaning takes two years — saying: Be grateful to Me and to both your parents; to Me is the eventual coming.

Interestingly, however, the above verse gives mothers priority over fathers. This should be, at least partially, a matter of compensation for the intensive care that offspring receive from their mothers. Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me? Actually, cytoplasm contains exclusively maternally inherited mitochondria, which harbor tiny circular DNA molecules that contain 37 of our genes. The genetic balance is, therefore, in favor of mothers.

The X chromosome is much larger ,, base pairs versus 57,, base pairs and contains many more genes 1, versus than the Y chromosome. This results in more maternal than paternal genetic participation in our development. In addition to the extra genetic material, organelles such as mitochondria, mRNA molecules, and other determinants present in the cytoplasm of unfertilized oocytes are transmitted to the zygote. These maternal cytoplasmic determinants play a capital role in the differentiation of zygotic cells into the many differentiated cell types through the expression of the appropriate gene s in each type of cell.

They also determine the body plan and orientation of the embryo. Therefore, in addition to the long period of pregnancy, labor, hard delivery, breast-feeding, and continuous care given, mothers contribute more genetic material to their offspring than fathers. Maternal determinants guide embryos towards appropriate body orientation and differentiation.

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Perhaps Islam also recognizes their contributions to biology and genetics. Genetics is concerned with genes inherited from parents, while environment encompasses all the external factors that influence organisms directly or indirectly. For most human characteristics, including those exhibited during health and disease, genes and environment interact to produce the phenotype. Huntington disease.

However, the majority of diseases are caused by multiple defective genes and environmental components that influence the appearance and severity of those diseases. Examples of such diseases include cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Similarly, epigenetic alterations that affect human behavior may result from interactions with the environment.