PURSUIT AND PROTECTION OF KNOWLEDGE

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That latter is so because, as noted, pandemic strains are derived in part from zoonotic influenza viruses, which by-and-large are antigenically distinct from strains already circulating in the human population, that humans already express immunity against. Consider the example of the pandemic.


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Because an entirely new vaccine was needed to meet the threat of the pandemic virus, the vaccine was not available until after the first wave of infection had already occurred. Fortunately, the pandemic virus was relatively mild. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, to identify gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed to develop such a vaccine 1. Participants noted shortcomings in our understanding of the epidemiology, transmission, natural history, and pathogenesis of influenza.

The host factors that influence influenza disease severity were also acknowledged to be poorly understood.

Pursuit and Protection of Knowledge

Participants also noted gaps in our understanding of the underlying B and T cell immune mechanisms that are induced by both natural infections and vaccinations. Further study of these responses was recommended so that we might be better able to stimulate them. As might be expected, it is singularly important to identify the antigens that might be the most promising targets of a universal vaccine. Neutralizing antibody responses to conserved regions such as the HA stalk, and non-neutralizing antibodies such as those directed at the neuraminidase NA , and matrix 2 ectodomain, merit further study…The importance of each site may differ for pandemic versus seasonal influenza.

After the bound virus is taken into the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the low pH within endosomes triggers a conformational rearrangement of the HA stalk region, which mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane, thereby releasing the viral cores into the cytosol. Since mutations within the stalk region might disrupt its membrane fusion function, such mutations are generally selected against.

Researchers have recently had success developing antibodies that target the neuraminidase protein at the viral surface. Participants acknowledged that animal models play an important role in influenza research, especially when studying pandemic viruses.

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Day two of the workshop consisted of a rapporteur session on key conclusions, chaired by David Baltimore and Anthony S. Fauci 1. Participants agreed that a robust collaboration between government agencies, academia, and industry would be needed to translate the fruits of basic research into a universal influenza vaccine. To that point, a January 24, editorial in Nature doi: You are commenting using your WordPress.

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Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Fauci 1 Participants agreed that a robust collaboration between government agencies, academia, and industry would be needed to translate the fruits of basic research into a universal influenza vaccine. Finally, during the final years he served on special assignments in the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, to implement an advanced quality system. They were the next generation family of Airplanes with a paperless design, build, and support.

Now it is in use on all Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

PURSUIT AND PROTECTION OF KNOWLEDGE

He served in this capacity for twenty-two years. Narinder is married to Indra Attri, a loving and supporting partner. In , they celebrated their 50th anniversary. Steve has two daughters named Marisa Attri, 13, and Sarina Attri, Formats Softcover. Book Details. Language : English.


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Format : Softcover. Dimensions : 6x9.

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